Railway Stations. There are in all about 200 railway-stations in London, including those of the Underground Railway (see below) and the suburban stations of the ordinary lines. The following are the terminal stations of the chief lines. 1. Euston Square Station, near Euston Road and Tottenham Court Road, for the trains of the London and North Western Railway to Rugby, Chester, N. Wales Holyhead (for Ireland), Birmingham, Liverpool. Manchester, Carlisle, and Scotland. 2. St. Pancras Station, Euston Road, for the trains of the Midland Railway to Bedford, Derby, Nottingham, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, and Scotland. 3. King's Cross Station, Euston Road, adjoining the last, for the trains of the Great Northern Co. to Peterborough, Sheffield, York, Hull, Lincoln, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, and Scotland. 4. Paddington Station, for the trains of the Great Western Railway to the West and South-West of England, Windsor, Oxford, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, and Wales. 5. Victoria Station, Victoria Street, S. W., a double station for the trains of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway, and various suburban lines. 6. Waterloo Station, Waterloo Road, for the trains of the London and South Western Railway to Reading, Windsor, and the South-West of England. 7. London Bridge Station, for the Brighton and South Coast Railway. 8. Charing Cross Station, close to Trafalgar Square, for the trains of the South Eastern Railway to Tunbridge, Canterbury, Folkestone, Dover, etc., and of local lines. 9. Cannon Street Station, the City terminus for the same lines as Charing Cross. 10. Ludgate Hill, and 11. Holborn Viaduct, City termini of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, and of local lines. 12. Liverpool Street Station, for the trains of the Great Eastern Railway to Cambridge, Lincoln, the Eastern Counties, and local stations. 13. Broad Street Station, adjoining the last, for the local trains of the North London Railway. 15. Fenchurch Street Station, near the Bank, for Blackwall, Gravesend, Southend, etc.
Steamers. Steamers ply from London to all parts of the world. Those from the Continent of Europe, Scotland, etc., land their passengers at wharves below London Bridge (landing, see above), while the large Oceanic liners enter the docks lower down the river, the passengers, when necessary, being sent on to London by special trains. American visitors to England usually land at Liverpool or Southampton. Numerous River Steamboats ply on the Thames between Hampton Court on the W. and Southend and Sheerness on the E., calling at about 45 intermediate piers, most of which are on the W. bank. Between London Bridge, Chelsea, and intermediate stations the steamers ply at intervals of 10 min. in summer, between Westminster and Greenwich every ½ hr. , are between Chelsea and Kew every ½ hr.
Hotels. The following are large hotels, with rooms at various rates, adjoining the principal railway-stations. GRAND MIDLAND, St. Pancras Station; EUSTON, Euston Square Station; GREAT NORTHERN, King's Cross; GREAT WESTERN, Paddington Station; CHARING CROSS, Charing Cross Station, Strand; GROSVENOR Victoria Station; HOLBORN VIADUCT, Holborn Viaduct Station; CANNON STREET, Cannon St. Station; GREAT EABTERN, Liverpool St.; TERMINUS, London Bridge Station. Large hotels belonging to companies: METROPOLE, VICTORIA, GRAND, Northumberland Avenue, Charing Cross; SAVOY, Thames Embankment, overlooking the river; BUCKINGHAM PALACE, Buckingham Palace Gate; WESTMINSTER PALACE, WINDSOR, Victoria St., Westminster., LANGHAM, Portland Place, FIRST AVENUE, Holburn; Inns of Court, High Holburn; Alexandra, 16 St Georges Place, Hyde Park Corner.
At the W. End: CLARIDGE'S, 49 Brook St., Grosvenor Sq., aristocratic and expensive; ALBEMARLE, Albemarle St. ; BUCKLAND'S, 42 Brook St. ; BERKELEY, 77 Piccadilly; BRISTOL, Burlington Gardens; THOMAS's, 25 Berkeley Sq.; CONTINENTAL, 1 Regent St.; LIMMER's, 2 George St., Hanover Sq.; QUEEN's GATE 98 Queen's Gate; SOUTH KENSINGTON, Queen's Gate Terrace; CADOGAN, 75 Sloane St.; NORRIS'S, 48 Russell Road, Addison Road Station; BAILEY's, Gloucester Road; and many others in the streets leading out of Piccadilly, Regent St., and Bond St. The accommodation at these West End hotels is generally good and the terms high.
In or near Trafalgar Sq. and the Strand: MORLEY's, Trafalgar Sq.; GOLDEN CROSS, SOMERSET, HAXELL's, Strand (Nos.152, 162, 371); PREVITALI, 14 Arundel St., Haymarket; HUMMUMS, TAVISTOCK, COVENT GARDEN, BEDFORD, Covent Garden; ARUNDEL, 19 Arundel St., on the Thames Embankment. There are also numerous quiet family hotels in the streets leading from the Strand to the Thames.
In Bloomsbury: BURR's, ROWLAND's, Queen Sq. (Nos. 11, 14), less pretending; BEDFORD, 93 Southampton Row; HORSESHOE, BEDFORD HEAD, Tottenham Court Road. (Nos. 264, 235), commercial. - In Holborn: RIDLER's, WOOD's, Furnival's Inn (quiet); IMPERIAL, Holborn Viaduct; COCKER's, 19 Charterhouse Sq. (quiet). - In Fleet Street and the City: ANDERTON'S, PEELE's, Fleet St. (Nos. 162,177); CATHEDRAL, 48 St. Paul's Churchyard., DE KEYSER's ROYAL, Embankment, Blackfriars, a large house; ALIBION, 172 Aldersgate St.; GREEN DRAGON 188 Bishopsgate Without; CITY OF LONDON, 11 Bishopsgate St. Within; SEYD's, 39 Finsbury Sq., etc.
Restaurants. Holborn, 218 High Holborn; Criterion, Regent Circus, two of the largest and best-known restaurants in London; St. James's Hall, 69 Regent St. and 25 Piccadilly; Verrey, Café Royal, Burlington, Kühn, Regent St., first-class and expensive; Gatti, Adelaide St. and 436 Strand; Simpson's, Gaiety, Romano, Strand (Nos. 101, 343, 599); Savoy Hotel (see above), with open-air restaurant, high charges; Cavour, 20 Leicester Sq.; Kettner, 29 Church St., Soho (French; somewhat expensive); Monico, 15 Tichborne St.; Frascati 26 Oxford St.; Rainbow, Cock, Fleet St. (Nos. 15, 22); Old Cheshire Cheese, 16 Wine Office Court, Fleet St. (quaint old rooms); Lake & Turner, 49 Cheapside; Pimm's, 3 Poultry; London Tavern, 53 Fenchurch St.; Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate (an interesting medieval building, handsomely fitted up); White Hart, 63 Borough High St., Southwark; Three Tuns Tavern, Billingsgate Fish Market, Lower Thames St. (fish-dinner, from 4 to 5 p.m., 2s) -
OYSTERS: Scott, 18 Coventry St., Haymarket; Rule, 38 Maiden Lane, Covent Garden; Pimm, 3 Poultry ; Lightfoot, 22 Lime St.; Smith 357 Strand.
Cafés. Simpson, Gatti, Criterion, Kühn, Verrey, Café Royal, Monico, see above. Vienna Café, corner of Oxford St. and Hart St., near the British Museum; Café de Paris, Ludgate Hill: Baker’s, 1 Change Alley, Cornhill.
Omnibuses, of which there are at least 200 lines, traverse the streets in all directions from about 8 a.m. till midnight. The destination of each bus and the principal streets through which it passes are painted on the outside. Buses keep to the left in driving along the street, and stop when hailed. To prevent mistakes, the passenger should mention his destination to the conductor on entering. The fares are very low.
Tramways. Several lines are in operation in the outlying districts. The cars are comfortable and the fares moderate.
Coaches. During summer well-appointed stage-coaches, generally starting from Northumberland Avenue, ply to various places of interest round London, affording, in fine weather, a very pleasant way of seeing the scenery.
Theatres. London contains about 65 theatres, most of which are in or near the Strand. Opera is performed at Her Majesty's Theatre or Opera House, Haymarket, and the Royal Italian Opera or Covent Garden Theatre. The largest theatre is Drury Lane Theatre, for spectacular plays, pantomimes, etc. Among the other leading theatres are the Lyceum (Mr. Henry Irving and Miss Ellen Terry), the Haymarket, St. James's, Savoy (Gilbert and Sullivan's operas), Princess's, Adelphi, Strand, Gaiety, Vaudeville, Globe, Royal Court, Toole's, Garrick, Shaftesbury, Lyric, Terry's, Olympic, Comedy, and Royalty.
Music Halls. Alhambra, Empire, Leicester Square (with elaborate ballets); London Pavilion, Piccadilly Circus; Tivoli, Strand; Trocadero, Shaftesbury Avenue; Oxford, 14 Oxford St., and many others. - Concerts of high-class music are given at St. James's Hall, the Royal Albert Hall, the Crystal Palace, St. George's Hall, Prince's Hall, etc.
Places of Entertainment. Tussaud's Waxworks, Marylebone Road; German Reed's Dramatic Entertainment, St. George's Hall; Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly; Moore and Burgess Minstrels (Christy Minstrels), St. James's Hall; Royal Aquarium, Westminster; Olympia, near the Addison Road Station. Kensington (a large skating rink); Panorama of Niagara, York St., Westminster.
Exhibitions of Pictures. Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Burlington House, Piccadilly (exhibition of works of modern British artists in summer); Grosvenor Gallery, 137 New Bond St.; New Gallery, 121 Regent St.; Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours, 5 Pall Mall East; Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, 191 Piccadilly; Dudley Gallery, Egyptian Hall; Royal Society of British Artists, Suffolk St., Pall Mall; Dord Gallery, 35 New Bond St.
London, the metropolis of the British Empire and the largest city in the world, lies in the S.E. of England, on both banks of the river Thames, and embraces parts of the four counties of Middlesex, Essex, Kent, and Surrey. At the census of 1881 the aggregate population of the metropolitan parliamentary boroughs (conterminous with the new County of the City of London) was 3,963,307; it is now about 4½ millions. The city has doubled in size within the last half-century, being now about 16 miles long from E. to W., and 9 miles wide from N. to S., and covering 122 sq. miles of ground. The area included in the Metropolitan Police District, extending for a radius of 15 miles from Charing Cross, amounts to 690 sq. miles and contains considerably over 5 million inhabitants.
The principal and larger part of London lies on the N. bank of the Thames, and includes the City, or commercial and money-making quarter on the E., and the fashionable West End, with the palaces of the Queen and the nobility and most of the sights frequented by visitors. The manufacturing quarters on the right bank of the Thames, and also the outlying districts to the N. and E. are comparatively uninteresting to strangers.
At what period the Britons settled on the spot now occupied by London, we have no means of knowing; but the British settlement became a Roman station in the reign of the Emp. Claudius (41-54 A.D.) and received the name of Londinium, evidently an adaptation of the British name Llyndun (from Llyn, a pool, and Din or Dun, a hill-fort). Under the Romans London became a commercial city of no little importance, and afterwards, as capital of one of the Saxon kingdoms, it continued to advance rapidly. It became practically the capital of England in the time of Canute, and received a charter from William the Conqueror. The present form of its Corporation dates from the close of the 12th century. In the 13-15th cent. the city suffered severely from fires, pestilences, and the outbreaks of Wat Tyler (1380) and Jack Cade (1450). The Great Plague of 1664-66 carried off about 100,000 of its citizens, and the Great Fire of 1666 destroyed 13,000 houses. Since then its history has been in the main one of constant progress and growth, the stages of which are best marked by the erection of its principal public buildings and by public improvements of all kinds.
Charing Cross, which is the official centre of London, from which the cab-radius, etc., are measured, and also practically the centre of the London of the sightseer, is the open space to the S. of Trafalgar Square, between the Strand and Whitehall. The name is probably derived from the ancient village of Cherringe. Trafalgar Square, one of the finest open spaces in London, contains the Nelson Column and statues of Sir Henry Havelock, Sir Chas. Napier, George IV., and Gen. Gordon. To the N.E. is the church of St. Martin's in the Fields, by Gibbs.
On the N. side of Trafalgar Square stands the National Gallery, erected in 1832-38 and enlarged in 1860, 1876, and 1887 From the large number of artists represented, the collections it contains are of the highest value to the student of art, and there is no lack of masterpieces of the first rank. The Italian and Netherlands Schools are admirably represented, the French and Spanish less fully. The Older British Masters are well illustrated, and the large collection of Turner's landscapes is unrivalled, but the English water-colourists are almost unrepresented. About 1100 pictures in all are exhibited.
From Trafalgar Square PALL MALL, With the principal Clubs, Marlborough House (Prince of Wales), and St. James’s Palace, leads to the S.W. towards the Green Park. A little to the S. of Pall Mall lies St. James's Park, at the W. end of which is Buckingham Palace, the London residence of the Queen, containing a fine picture-gallery (access difficult to obtain).
NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, leading to the S.E. from Trafalgar Square to the Thames, contains three huge hotels and the Constitutional Club. On the Embankment is the National Liberal Club.
WHITEHALL, leading to the S. from Trafalgar Square, passes the Admiralty, the Horse Guards (headquarters of the military authorities), and the various Government Offices (all to the right). On the other side are Scotland Yard (headquarters of the police), the United Service Museum, and the palace of Whitehall, the only relic of which is the fine Palladian Banqueting Hall, now a Royal Chapel (adm. on application to the keeper). Whitehall is continued by Parliament Street, leading to PARLIAMENT SQUARE, which is embellished with statues of Peel, Palmerston, Derby, Beaconsfield, and Canning. To the left rise the Houses of Parliament, a huge building in the richest late-Gothic (Tudor) style, by Sir Charles Barry. The exterior is adorned with innumerable statues, and the interior is fitted up with great taste and splendour (adm., see p. 4; adm. to sittings of the House of Lords or House of Commons through a member, the former open to the public when sitting as a Court of Appeal).
The Victoria Tower, the largest of the three which adorn the building, is 340 ft. high. Westminster Hall, adjoining the Houses of Parliament on the W. and forming a kind of public entrance-hall, is part of the ancient palace of Westminster and dates mainly from the 14th century. The fine oaken ceiling is a masterpiece of timber architecture.
To the S. of Parliament Square, opposite the Houses of Parliament, stands Westminster Abbey, said to have been founded in the 7th cent., rebuilt by Edward the Confessor (1049-65), and dating in its present form mainly from the latter half of the 13th cent., with numerous important additions and alterations. The chapel of Henry VII dates from the beginning of the 16th cent., and the towers from 1722-40. With its royal burial-vaults and long series of monuments to celebrated men, Westminster Abbey may claim to be the British Walhalla or Temple of Fame.
The Interior produces a very fine and imposing effect, though this is somewhat marred by the egregiously bad taste of many of the monuments with which nave, aisles, and transepts are filled. The most interesting monuments are, perhaps, those in the Poets' Corner (S. transept). Of the chapels at the E. end of the church the most noteworthy are those of Edward the Confessor and the beautiful Perp. Chapel of Henry VII; but all contain interesting tombs. The Cloisters and Chapter House should also be visited.
To the N. of the abbey stands St. Margaret's Church, with some interesting monuments and stained-glass windows. On the S. it is adjoined by Westminster School, one of the oldest and most important schools in the country. The Westminster Column, to the W. of the Abbey, commemorates former pupils killed in war.
From Westminster Bridge, which crosses the Thames here, the VICTORIA EMBANKMENT runs to the N. along the left bank of the river to Blackfriars, while the ALBERT EMBANKMENT extends to the S., on the opposite bank, to Vauxhall Bridge. The former is embellished with Cleopatra's Needle (an obelisk brought from Egypt) several Statues, and pleasantly laid out gardens. Among the chief buildings adjoining the Victoria Embankment are Montague House (Duke of Buccleuch), the National Liberal Club, the Savoy Hotel, the Medical Examination Hall, Somerset House, the School Board Office, the Temple, Sion College, the City of London School, and the Royal Hotel.
We may now return to Trafalgar Square and proceed to the N.W. to PICCADILLY, a handsome street extending to the W. from Haymarket. The E. portion of the street contains handsome shops, business-houses, and concert-halls. To the right is Burlington House, the headquarters of the Royal Academy, Royal Society, and several other learned bodies. To the left is the Museum of Practical Geology. The W. half of Piccadilly, skirting the Green Park, contains many aristocratic residences and clubs.
Piccadilly ends at Hyde Park Corner, the S.E. entrance of Hyde Park, the most fashionable of the London parks, covering an area of nearly 400 acres. The favourite drive extends along its S. side from Hyde Park Corner to Kensington Gate and is thronged with carriages from 5 to 7 p. m. in the season. Parallel to the drive is Rotten Row, the chief resort of equestrians. The large piece of artificial water is named the Serpentine. To the W. Hyde Park is adjoined by Kensington Gardens, with their fine old trees, containing Kensington Palace, now occupied by the Duke of York and various royal pensioners.
The line of Piccadilly is prolonged towards the W. by Knightsbridge (with large cavalry barracks) and Kensington Gore, skirting the S. side of Hyde Park. To the right, within the park, rises the Albert Memorial, a magnificent Gothic monument to the late Prince Consort. Opposite is the Albert Hall, a huge circular structure in brick and terracotta, used for concerts and oratorios and accommodating about 10,000 people. At the back of the Albert Hall is the new Imperial Institute, situated in what used to be the gardens of the Horticultural Society. Of the Exhibition Galleries surrounding these gardens, one (to the E.) contains the India Museum, a fine collection of Oriental works of industry and art, and the others collections connected with South Kensington Museum (see below).
South Kensington Museum, situated at the corner of Exhibition Road (leading S. from Kensington Gore) and Cromwell Road, includes a Museum of ornamental or applied art, a national gallery of British art, an art library, an art training school, and a school of science.
The Art Collection, one of the largest and finest in the world, is exhibited in three large glass-roofed courts and in the galleries adjoining them. We first enter the ARCHITECTURAL COURT, chiefly containing casts, but also a few fine original works. The SOUTH COURT contains small works of art in metal, ivory, amber, porcelain, etc., many of which are on loan. The NORTH COURT is devoted to Italian art, comprising numerous original sculptures of the Renaissance - The NATIONAL GALLERY OF BRITISH ART, on the upper floor, contains an extensive and representative Collection of British Water-Colours, the Sheepshanks Collection of modern paintings, the famous Cartoons of Raphael, etc. On the same floor are the Ceramic Gallery, the Jones Collection of French Furniture, a Collection of Enamels (Prince Consort Gallery), and other valuable works of art.
To the W. of this museum is the Natural History Museum, a handsome and most convenient structure, containing the extensive natural history collections of the British Museum.
On the N. Hyde Park is bounded by the Uxbridge Road, the prolongation of which to the E. forms perhaps the most important line of thoroughfare in London.
OXFORD STREET, the first of the magnificent series of streets, begins at the Marble Arch, or N.E entrance of Hyde Park, and is about 1½ miles in length. The square near its W. half contain many of the most aristocratic houses in London, while its E. half is an unbroken series of attractive shops. Among the chief streets diverging from it are Edgware Road, Bond Street (with fashionable shops and picture-galleries), Regent Street (see below), Tottenham Court Road, and Charing Cross Road (leading to Charing Cross). Oxford Circus, where Oxford St. intersects Regent St., is one of the chief centres of the omnibus traffic.
Regent Street, one of the finest streets in London, containing many of the best shops, extends from Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, to Portland Place, which ends at the Regent's Park. Regent's Park, 470 acres in extent, is well worthy of a visit and contains the gardens of the Zoological Society, the Botanical Society, and the Toxopholite Society. On the S. the park is bounded by MARYLEBONE ROAD, with Tussaud's Waxworks; close to the Baker St. station of the Metropolitan Railway. Both park and street take their name from the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV. To the N. of Regent's Park rises. Primrose Hill, beyond which lies Hampstead.
From New Oxford St., beyond Tottenham Court Road (see above), two short streets load to the left (N.) to the British Museum, a huge building with an Ionic portico, containing a series of extensive and highly valuable collections.
GROUND FLOOR. To the right of the entrance is the section for Printed Books and Manuscripts, containing numerous incunabula, autographs, and other objects of the greatest interest and value. The galleries to the left contain the Greek and Roman Sculptures, including the famous Elgin Marbles. Other galleries on this side (W.) contain the almost equally important Egyptian and Assyrian Collections. - The door immediately opposite the main entrance leads to the huge circular Reading Room, which is shown to visitors, on application to the official at the entrance.
UPPER FLOOR. The W. wing contains the Ethnological Department, the Medieval Antiquities, the Glass and Ceramic Gallery, and the Collection of Prints - In the E. wing are the Vases, Bronzes, Terra Cotta Works, and Gold Ornaments. The N. galleries are devoted to the smaller Etruscan, Egyptian, and Assyrian Antiquities, including an extensive collection of mummies.
Oxford Street is continued by Holborn, Holborn Viaduct (a clever piece of engineering), Newgate St., and Cheapside. To the left diverges the wide Charterhouse Street, leading to the extensive Smithfield Markets and to the Charterhouse, an interesting old building used as an asylum for old men. Adjoining Smithfield are St. Bartholomew's Hospital and the Church of St. Bartholomew, with a fine Norman interior, recently restored.
In Newgate Street, to the left, is Christ's Hospital (Blue-coat School), a school for 1200 boys and 100 girls, founded by Edward VI. The boys still wear their curious original dress. Just beyond it are the large buildings of the General Post Office, the W. section containing the telegraph department.
A few yards to the S. of Newgate Street rises St. Paul's Cathedral, an imposing Romanesque building with a beautifully proportioned dome, erected by Sir Christopher Wren in 1675-1710 on the site of the older building destroyed by the Great Fire (1666). The Interior, though somewhat bare and dark, is imposing from the beauty and vastness of its proportions. It is second to Westminster Abbey alone as the burial-place of eminent men, particularly naval and military officers. As in the Abbey, the monuments are seldom of artistic value, but a prominent exception is the monument of the Duke of Wellington, by Stevens, in a chapel of the S. aisle. The Duke and Lord Nelson are buried in the Crypt. The visitor may ascend to the Whispering Gallery, with its curious acoustic properties, and to the Stone Gallery, which affords an excellent view of the city.
Cheapside, containing the church of St. Mary-le-Bow, is prolonged by the Poultry, leading to the Bank, the space in front of which is in business-hours the scone of a traffic probably unrivalled elsewhere. The Bank of England, an irregular and low edifice by Sir John Sloane, is open daily, as far as its business offices are concerned, from 10 to 3. The printing, weighing, and bullion offices are shown by the special order of the Governor or Deputy Governor. The Royal Exchange, to the S. of the Bank, dates from 1842-44 (chief business hour 3.30-4.30 p.m. on Tues. & Frid.). Opposite the Bank, at the end of the Poultry, rises the Mansion House, or official residence of the Lord Mayor, erected in 1739-52. The Lord Mayor's police-court is open daily, 12-2, but the state and reception rooms are shown only by special permission. In Walbrook, behind the Mansion House, is the church of St. Stephen’s, with one of Wren's best interiors.
The Guildhall, or council-hall of the City, to the N. of Cheapside, was originally built in the 15th cent., but was restored after the Great Fire and provided with a new facade in 1789. Visitors are admitted to the Great Hall, with its fine timber roof, and the Museum and Art Gallery also deserve a visit. The Free Library is open to all.
Bethnal Green Museum, with the National Portrait Gallery, about ½ mile to the N.E. of the Bank, may be reached by an Old Ford omnibus from the Bank, by a tramway-car from the Aldgate station of the Metropolitan Railway, or by train from Liverpool St. Station to Cambridge Heath.
We may now proceed to the S., through King William Street, to London Bridge, passing the Monument, a lofty column (202 ft.) erected in commemoration of the Great Fire. London Bridge, erected in 1826-31, is the most important of the bridges over the Thames and is the scene of an immense traffic. The oldest bridge at this point was erected by the Saxons, or, perhaps, by the Romans. The bridge commands a good view of the busy river.
From the N. end of London Bridge LOWER THAMES STREET runs along the left bank of the Thames, passing the Coal Exchange, Billingsgate Fish-Market, and the Custom House. The street ends at Great Tower Hill, opposite the Tower, the ancient fortress and state-prison of London. It is possible that a Roman fort stood here, but the Tower of London properly originated with William the Conqueror, who in 1078 erected the WHITE TOWER, forming the centre of the mass of buildings. It contains a Norman Chapel, extensive collections of arms and armour, etc., and, like many of the other small towers, is full of historical interest. The Crown Jewels are kept in the Record or Wakefield Tower.
On the E. side of Tower Hill stands the Royal Mint (admission by order procured by previous written application to the Deputy-Master of the Mint), and on the N. is Trinity House, concerned with the regulation of lighthouses and other matters pertaining to navigation. -- Below the Thames here are the Tower Subway and (a little higher up) the new City of London and Southwark Subway, to be traversed by an electric railway. The Thames Tunnel, about 2M. below London Bridge, is now used for railway traffic only. The Docks, which begin just below the Tower and extend for several miles down the river, are described in the Handbook for London.
From St. Paul's we may return to Charing Cross by Fleet Street and the Strand. FLEET STREET, deriving its name from the old Fleet Brook, is one of the busiest thoroughfares in London and contains many newspaper and printing offices. To the S. of it lies the Temple, originally a lodge of the Knights Templar, but now belonging to the legal corporations (barristers) of the Inner and the Middle Temple. The Temple Gardens are frequently open.
The Temple Church, in the Inner Temple, consists of a Round Church in the Norman style, completed in 1185, and an E.E. choir (1240). The fine Gothic Hall of the Middle Temple should also be visited.
On the N. side of Fleet St., at the corner of Chancery Lane, are the Royal Courts of Justice, a huge Gothic pile by Street. At the back of the Law Courts lies Lincoln’s Inn a corporation similar to the Temple, with a valuable old library. Gray's Inn, another Inn of Court, lies to the N. of Holborn.
The STRAND, which begins here, was. formerly entered from Fleet St. by Temple Bar, removed in 1878. It contains numerous theatres and newspaper offices. Adjoining the Law Courts is the church of St. Clement Danes, and a little farther on is St. Mary-le-Strand's.
Somerset House, to the left, a large quadrangular
building on the site of an old palace of the Protector Somerset, is
devoted to various public offices. The E. wing is occupied by King's
College. Savoy Street, a little farther on, leads to the left to the Savoy
Chapel, a Perp. building of 1505-11, on the site of the ancient Savoy
Palace. COVENT GARDEN MARKET lies to the N. of this part of the Strand.
Among the chief points of interest on the S. or Surrey side of the Thames are Lambeth Palace, for 600 years the residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury, the chapel dating from 1245, the Lollard's Tower from 1434, etc., with a fine library; St. Thomas's Hospital, on the pavilion system, adjoining Westminster Bridge; Bethlehem Hospital, a large lunatic asylum (Bedlam); St. George's Roman Catholic Cathedral; Battersea Park; St. Saviour's Church (13-16th cent.), near London Bridge; Barclay and Perkins' Brewery; Spurgeon's Tabernacle; and Guy's Hospital.
The numerous other places of interest in and near
London, such as Chelsea Hospital, Greenwich Hospital, the Crystal Palace,
Hampton Court, Dulwich, Woolwich, Richmond, Kew, and Epping Forest, are
described in Baedeker's Handbook for London.